The End Of History And The Lastman

The End Of History And The Lastman

As a Japanese american, who confessed to not knowing any Japanese, one can only surmise that Francis Fukuyama has been thoroughly Americanized. But as a former student in German philosophy, his use of Hegelian dialectics is quite interesting.  Fukuyama believes that out of every intellectual cum ideological struggle, the sort marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall, will emerge a synthesis to that debate and counter debate.

Fukuyama, then deputy director of the State Department's Policy Planning Staff, first presented this thesis i.e. the end of history in the foreign policy journal National Interest (Summer 1989), where it attracted worldwide attention. But this was concurrently due to the triumphant moment in time, when the West was deemed to have won.

Fukuyama argues that there is a positive direction to current history, demonstrated by the collapse of authoritarian regimes of right and left and their replacement (in many but not all cases) by liberal governments.  "A true global culture has emerged, centering around technologically driven economic growth and the capitalist social relations necessary to produce and sustain it." In the absence of viable alternatives to liberalism, history, conceived of as the clash of political ideologies, is at an end. Humanity faces instead the question of how to forge a rational global order that can accommodate humanity's restless desire for recognition without a return to chaos.

Fukuyama's views conveniently present the international politics of the present administration. History disappears very early on in the narrative, to be replaced by abstract philosophy. This essay made into a book is pretentious and overblown, though it offers some grounds for speculation